The paper considers and analyses Russian and foreign practices of organization of licensing activities in the field of nuclear energy use. On the basis of the analysis, recommendations are made on reduction of term of NPP licensing. The problem of reduction of NPP construction time limits is an actual one for the State Atomic Energy Corporation «Rosatom», because on 20.09.2008 the Government of the Russian Federation approved the Program of activities of the State Atomic Energy Corporation «Rosatom» for a long-term period (2009–2015), according to which it is planned to construct, at least, 10 nuclear power plant units. In order to fulfil that program, it is necessary to optimize current time limits and schedules of NPP construction taking into account international practices. Licensing of the activities in the area of nuclear energy use plays a critical role in that process.